Sunday, March 31, 2013

Steps To Avoid Kidney Diseases.

  • Be Active 
  • Controlling of Blood Sugar Levels 
  • Blood Pressure Control 
  • Proper food and Control of Weight 
  • No Smoking 
  • Avoid Unnecessary Medicines 
  • Kidney Check-Up

Monday, March 18, 2013

Lie detection, is it true?

A lie detector or polygraph machine is used to aid in finding out if someone is truthfully answering a specific set of questions. It is a combination of various devices used to measure a person's physical responses to what are known as irrelevant, control and relevant questions. How this data is interpreted by the examiner will determine if the subject is telling the truth.

In a typical lie detection test the subject is asked a number of question before the actual test is performed. These are used to create what is known as a "baseline". How the subjects reaction to these question will help create the baseline. The subjects pulse, blood pressure, rate of breathing and how much they sweat could be all measured as physical responses to help create the baseline. When the actual test questions are asked the response to these questions is compared to the questions asked to create the baseline.

There are three types of questions asked. Some questions are irrelevant such as asking the subject what their name is. Others are called probable-lie control questions and often get an answer which is not truthful. This type of question could be asking the subject if they ever committed a crime. The type of question most important to the examiner is what is known as a relevant question. A relevant question would be like asking the subject if they committed the crime. If the subjects response to the probable-lie control question is greater than to the relevant questions, then the answer to the relevant question is considered truthful.

It should be noted many scientists do not consider a lie detector test to be very accurate. It is not considered scientific by many and therefore not accurate enough to be used in a court of law.

Thursday, March 14, 2013

Touch Screen and health

We are all fully aware of the anti-biotic resistant bacteria, which exists in our hospitals. There are all sorts of fungus, viruses, diseases, and other things that humans will have to deal with in the future along these lines. Yes, we will no doubt come up with nano-particles which will be able to defeat these types of bacteria, and other strategies such as using nano-copper material or titanium dioxide to help us. But, don't forget that there are real challenges we face in the future.

Also, let's not forget the reality that there are bio weapons being created, and mankind is busy experimenting with the modification of various species on the planet, including many crop species and foods that we eat through bio engineering. Sometimes these experiments can create unintended consequences, just as mankind's travel throughout the world brings with it the possibility of more diseases and viruses being introduced into our society and civilization, which is relatively stable and sterile to such human biosystem challenges.

One of the biggest problems they found in hospitals where people contracted MRSA was due to the remote control which would be passed to various individuals within the room of a hospital. Yes, something as simple as the TV clicker was spreading MRSA from patient to patient. Still even having all the hospital nurses and doctors continually wash their hands and change their gloves, MRSA could still spread relatively easily. This is a real problem.

Now then, what about all the touch screen systems that people will be using in the future. There are many touchscreen kiosks out there and there will be more in the future. They will have all types of germs on them, and the glass needs to be coded with nano copper material, titanium dioxide, or other such substances, this way they will be self-cleaning, and kill the bacteria, viruses, or diseases caused from the interaction with human tissue.

Wednesday, March 13, 2013

How to overcome side effects of mobile phones?

1. Use the external antenna in the car.
Most mobile phones have an attachment to the external antenna, all energy can be kept outside the vehicle.

2. Use hands-free device
Each place to keep your mobile is better than sticking it to the ear.

3. Use voice recognition
Instead of touching the mobile you can say what number you want to dial.

4. Use digital phones
Analog phones use about 1.3 Watts which twice as much as in digital phones (0.6W)

5. Make your conversations shorter
Cut it as short as possible

side effects

Side effects of excessive usage of mobile phones

- nerves in the scalp are damaged

- blood cells leak hemoglobin

- headaches, fatigue

- loss of memory,

- the strange ringing in the ear, sense of smell is impaired

- retina may be damaged, eyes can get cancer

- the amount of white blood cells is reduced

- digestive problems may appear, bad levels of cholesterol are risen

- the barrier to viruses and toxins is open

- asthma is triggered

- the endocrine system stops working properly

- skin rash and burning sensation of skin is evoked

see also

Effects of usage of mobile phones.

Cell phones' electromagnetic radiation is said to cause brain cancer. Is it true? People are concerned about the fact that high levels of microwave radiation pose harmful hidden dangers and realize they demand protection that will ensure their safety and help them keep in a healthy and good condition. Although there are many shields available on the market the don't protect them against radiation from towers, antenna or masts. So what can we do to prevent ourselves from emission that kills our brain cells?
Mobile phones radiation
Mobile phones are used worldwide these days, the invention of pocket sized mobile phones startled the implementation of mobile phones into our daily lives. As far as I'm concerned, there are people who have a kind of emotional attitude to their mobiles, they would rather die than not use mobile at all. To make things worse, there are scant numbers of people who can imagine life without mobile phones and being in touch with their family or friends 24/7. Since mobile phones depend greatly on radiation there is a concern if they have any harmful effect on people's health. The industry tries to con the public and make them believe in lack of any negative effect of mobile phone industry as it brings billions of dollars every year.
So far, numerous studies and tests have been conducted to check whether mobiles are harmful or not. The controversy and debates over the effects of usage mobile phones and their possibility to cause brain tumors are of special interest of scientists, communication workers and ordinary people. The reason for such an interest is that cell phones belong to the group of products that emit electromagnetic radiation e.g microwave oven, electric clocks, computers or other appliances. This is non ionizing radiation which is claimed not to cause any damages to the cells. Ionizing radiation e.g. x-rays damages DNA of the cells, results in mutations and birth defects.
According to some researchers using a mobile phone has no direct effect on getting malignant brain tumors. The harmful effect of mobile phone is achieved through their thermal effect. This type of radiation causes dielectric heating which heats up living tissue - your one part of the head will be warm. This could be called microwave radiation - according to The Journal of Cellular Biochemistry this radiation interferes with DNA and destroys its repair mechanisms. Apart from that microwave radiation make cells age rapidly or cancerous cells grow quicker, as Italian scientists demonstrated.
Brain damages
Even tiny, minimal doses of radio frequency accumulate and lead to harmful effects and damage the brain cells. Although it is the antenna which is said to emit the biggest amount of radiation the mouthpiece and keypad also leak radiation, penetrates the brain, ear and eye tissues.

Side effects

Tuesday, March 12, 2013

How does a car work?

A car consists of many thousands of individual parts. But what is really necessary to drive the car? A cigarette lighter, power windows or car radio? Without these you could still drive a car.

Let's look at cars created more than 100 years ago. These cars had engines and various parts such as gears, clutch and drive shaft to transfer power from the motor to the four wheels, brakes and steering. A seat was available as well, because no-one wanted to stand all the time. All these parts were hung on a frame, the body.

Automobiles are equipped with engines that work with gasoline or diesel. Diesel fuel is nothing more than heating oil, only with a few chemical additives, so the engine runs better. The core of the diesel engine is a cylinder block which is a two, three, four, five or six (sometimes more) cylinder. These cylinders move the piston.

At the top of the cylinder, the injection nozzle is mounted, through which the diesel fuel is injected at high pressure into the combustion chamber. The cylinder head has two valves, the intake valve and exhaust valve. The piston moves the cylinder to the bottom, so air comes in through the intake valve into the cylinder.

In the next phase, the piston moves upward and the air in the cylinder is compressed. What happened here, you may know from the bicycle. If you own an air pump and have quickly pumped air into a tire, the air pump can become warm. This is because air that is compressed is heated. Now the air in the cylinder is compressed and very strongly (to about the 30 to 50 times our atmospheric pressure) and heated thereby to a temperature of 700-900 °C

Now comes the diesel fuel through the injector into the cylinder, it ignites at these high temperatures and immediately explodes. The piston now pushes down. The combusted air-diesel mixture exits out the exhaust, so that fresh air can enter again.

With two-stroke engines, this happens while the piston moves down. For four-stroke engines, which uses air for further movement is pressed upwards, and then the piston moves down again and starts over again.

The various cylinders (two, three or more) are now connected in series, so that it comes one after another to explode the fuel. The piston is attached to bottom with the rod (left) on the crankshaft (bottom). This is offset by the movement of the pistons into rotary motion.

Saturday, March 9, 2013

Science of Magic?

Magic goes beyond any religious doctrine. Many of the religious magical practices used during the Age of Pisces, the last 2000 years, have no use in this new Age of Aquarius. The much used Tree of Life is not the whole Universe, but only a very small part of it.

Now Magic is to be practiced on a scientific basis. This new scientific process will give us the freedom of thinking out of the religious box. Magic is Action that has a goal to cause an effect or a change in an individual or in a situation.

Magic causes this change at any distance. Every magician of the past knew he needed three things to be effective. He/she needed a psychic link to his target. Some hair, finger nails, a photo, clothing, blood, and Astrology chart and even just a mental image. A second link is needed. A link that determines the desired effect or a desired action. Symbols make very powerful second links.

And thirdly, and most importantly, they needed psychic energy (Life-Force.) If a magician has these three at his disposal he/she is ready to start to do magic. A magician fails to achieve the desired action or effect if there is a psychic defense, blockage or interference present.

The second reason for failure is not enough Life-Force. All magicians knew they had to develop strong psychic powers or magical powers. Life energy is the medium that makes all magic work. It is also called prana, chi, psychic power, magical power, ond, and mana. The new science of magic will use a scientific model of life energy.

Franz Anton Mesmer was one of the first to use this new scientific model of magic (Life-Force.) He called it "Animal Magnetism." He "mesmerized" people to heal them. He used wooden barrels filled with iron filings and two iron rods sticking out of the barrel that the patient held onto.

Then came Baron Karl Von Reichenbach with his Odic force. More recently, Wilhelm Reich. He coined the word "Orgone" Life energy. He built an orgone generator which charged people with energies for a healing.

Early magicians who did not use the scientific model of Life-Energy for magic, still knew that psychic energy was needed for their work. They used chanting, emotional out bursts, group rituals, magical practices, religious emotionalism and animal sacrifice.

The most recent scientist who takes the Science of Magic to it's highest and most powerful level is Karl Hans Welz. He invented the Chi Orgone Generator and a series of Radionic devices that deliver powerful life force 24/7. The modern day magician can now be more than any magician that went before, simply by using an orgone generator or a Radionics device.

Welcome to the Age of Scientific Magic.

Ragnar Storyteller (AKA Ellis Peterson is a Korean War Vet living with his wife Lory and dog Dixie in the boonies of the Pocono Mountains. He is a retired math professor and electronics engineer. He is the inventor of the simple radionics device called "The Nordic Ond Orgone Generator". He has written over 200 articles and booklets on runes, radionics, quantum physics, viking history, orgone generators and alternate healing methods. Ragnar is 70+ but looks 50's thanks to his inventions. You can see more of his works on his website: Ragnar Storyteller's un-politcally correct writings on quantum physics and other stuff.

Friday, March 8, 2013

Did you know?

  • Did you know that there are 206 bones in the adult human body and there are 300 in children (as they grow some of the bones fuse together).
  • Flea's can jump 130 times higher than their own height. In human terms this is equal to a 6ft. person jumping 780 ft. into the air.
  • 40 years ago: An all-female population of lizards was discovered in Armenia.
  • There are no poisonous snakes in Maine.
  • The human eye blinks an average of 4,200,000 times a year.
  • The tentacles of the giant Arctic jellyfish can reach 120 feet (36.6 meters) in length.
  • The heaviest human brain ever recorded weighed 5 lb. 1.1 oz. (2.3 kg.).
  • If you could throw a snowball fast enough, it would totally vaporize when it hit a brick wall.
  • If you stretch a standard Slinky out flat it measures 87 feet long.
  • If you could drive to the sun -- at 55 miles per hour -- it would take about 193 years
  • The moon is one million times drier than the Gobi Desert.
  • Every year in the US, 625 people are struck by lightning.
  • Emus and kangaroos cannot walk backwards.
  • Our eyes are always the same size from birth, but our nose and ears never stop growing.
  • A cat has 32 muscles in each ear.
  • Only humans sleep on their backs.
  • 15 million blood cells are produced and destroyed in the human body every second.
  • Every minute, 30-40,000 dead skin cells fall from your body.
  • If your mouth was completely dry, you would not be able to distinguish the taste of anything.
  • The animal with the largest brain in relation to its body is the ant.
  • Crocodiles swallow stones to help them dive deeper.
  • Sharks are immune to cancer.
  • Lobsters have blue blood.
  • Shark's teeth are literally as hard as steel.
  • A mosquito has 47 teeth.
  • Ants do not sleep.
  • The earliest cockroach fossils are about 280 million years old.
  • The average person has 100,000 hairs on his/her head. Each hair grows about 5 inches (12.7 cm) every year.
  • A cockroach can live for several weeks without its head.

Thursday, March 7, 2013

Ice Cream Fun

There are lots of fun facts about ice if it wasn't fun enough!

Young and old find this frozen treat soft, smooth, and absolutely irresistible. Whether eating it from a bowl, licking it from a cone stacked high, or scooping it straight out of the container into your waiting mouth - any experience with this tasty dessert is bound to be a fun one!

As you lick up the last few drops from your treat and think that your fun with ice cream is soon to be over, why not savor a couple of fun facts about this tasty treat? How do these facts relate to you?

Fact # 1: Most Popular Flavors

The choice is up to you. You're at the supermarket and find yourself in the frozen foods aisle, peering through the glass doors at the frozen desserts. You carefully examine all the flavors available and then come to your decision. You open the freezer door and reach for your favorite flavor. What did you choose? The most popular flavors are vanilla, chocolate, butter pecan, and strawberry!

Fact # 2: Most Popular Topping

With your favorite ice cream safely tucked into your car, you head for home. Once home, you immediately grab a spoon, fill your bowl, and reach for a topping. What did you grab? Most people choose chocolate syrup.

Fact # 3: Sharing with a Pet

Having made your frozen dessert just the way you like it, you flop yourself into a comfy chair to enjoy your treat. All your actions have not gone unnoticed. Within a couple minutes, your faithful dog saunters over and decides it's time for him to cash in on some of his rights as "man's best friend." Softly, he whimpers, fixing his steady gaze on the contents in your bowl. What do you do? About 5% of people let their pet enjoy some of this frosty treat with them!

Fact # 4: Licking the Bowl Clean

The contents in your bowl quickly diminish - whether you have the help of your dog or not! You scrape your spoon along the bottom of the bowl. Soon, even the spoon becomes ineffective for getting anything out. As you look inside your bowl, you can see all the goodies that your spoon has left. That's bothersome. You don't want to waste even a drop of this tasty treat! Inside, a war rages. You can't rinse this down the sink! Then again, will you actually lick the bowl? What will you do? Men (13%) are more likely to lick the bowl clean than women (8%).

Facts are fun, but everyone cream is the most fun when you have a full bowl in front of you and some melting inside your mouth

Science behind Fear

Why do we have fears?
What happens inside our brains when we feel fear?

How do we overcome it?

Fear is a natural emotional respond towards a threat, such as pain and danger. It is innate, which means that it is there since the day we were born, and it is there in every human beings anywhere, at anytime. It exists in the age where sabre-tooth tiger still roam the earth, and it still exist today in the modern world. The thing is, unlike 3000 years ago where sabre-tooth tiger could be lurking anywhere around the bush, the threats we face today are rarely life-threatening. Some of our fears are not even justifiable (a research done shows that 90% of what we fear and worry about never happens!), but the emotional respond towards it is the same as being face to face with a sabre-tooth tiger. We fear taking responsibilities, speaking in public, starting on a new project, asking for a raise, taking that exam, leaving a job that you hate, or even talking to that girl (or guy) that you feel that you would spend the rest of your life with. I am going to take speaking in public for example. Some people equate the thought of it to impending death (I am serious). Just by thinking about it, a burst of adrenaline rushes through our veins, our hearts beats faster, our breaths become shallow, our hands become cold. This is our body response towards fear. Many people let these natural responds stop them from achieving their wildest dreams. Most people know that effectively conveying their ideas to others in a meeting, or in a speech, is necessary step towards a achieving their success, but because of fear, like a caveman confronted with a sabre-tooth tiger, they run away.

Now here is the science behind fear. Fear, along with joy, sadness and anger are part of our basic or innate emotions. They are controlled by a small part of our brain called the amygdala.

Research has shown rats with toxoplasmosis, or simply put, a rat infected by a parasite that destroys their brain, specifically the amygdala, show less fear, including towards cats. (I think in the cartoon show 'Tom & Jerry', Jerry had his amygdala destroyed by toxoplasmosis). This behavior, as a consequence, makes them easily caught and eaten by cats. That is lucky for the parasite, which uses cats as their permanent home. So what if we destroy our 'fear centre' in the amygdala so we would be well on our way towards success? Yes, we would be able to speak in public effortlessly, we would leave the jobs that we hate in pursuit for a better one, and we would go on and talk to that girl who we will spend the rest of our lives with. However, we would also be jumping out of skyscrapers without a parachute on a daily basis, believing we could fly, we would go on for a leisure walk, found out and find a big fat guy across the street, and tell him: "Hey, I think you are big, fat, and stupid", and get a punch right in the face. So you see, destroying our fear does not work. Fear is necessary. Yes, it is necessary, but don not let it stop you from doing the things that are necessary for a better life!

So how do we overcome fear and do the necessary steps toward a better life? The first step is to realize that your fear is actually unfounded (skip this step if your fear is life-threatening, like the fear of jumping off an airplane without a parachute, or the fear of jumping into a pool full of crocodiles at the zoo). In 2004, a research was done at Columbia University where two groups of people were shown fear stimuli (like pictures of vampires, snakes, spiders, ghosts, you name it!) for different periods of times. One group, let us name this group A, was shown the picture so fast and short in duration, that they did not get the chance to really observe and consciously think about them. The other, group B, was shown for a little longer period of time, giving the subject a little more time to consciously perceive the pictures. Researchers observed that the people in group B experienced less 'fear activity' in the amygdala. They are less fearful, although the fear stimulus is the same! Fear is almost entirely autonomic, or in other words, we do not consciously trigger it. However, the research suggests that we can consciously control our fear responses by thinking and justifying the fear itself. The people in group B are less fearful because they consciously think and justify their fear and think: "This is not worth all the fear, they are just pictures", while the people in group A did not get the chance to do that. They rely on the autonomic fear response. This helps 3000 years ago when it is practical to just run away instead of observing the color of the sabre-tooth tiger, and what a sharp teeth it has, but today, running away from our daily fears is usually not live-saving.

So taking it into our daily lives, justify your fears. What would happen if you ask for that raise? The worst thing could happen is that you got rejected, and you are salary is as it was before. No boss has ever cut an employee's salary simple because he asked for a raise. You lose nothing. At least you tried, and your boss knows you wanted a raise, and would think about it in the future. What would happen if you asked someone out for a lunch, and you got rejected? You do not have anyone to have lunch to begin with, and again, you lose nothing, and surely, you are not dead! So think and justify your fears, tell your brain that it is okay to do scary things that is necessary for a better you. When we think carefully about our fears instead of just letting it run its autonomic course, the 'fear activity' inside our amygdala decreases. We feel less fearful, and ready to take on life challenges!

Live Green

Increasingly, environmental issues are coming to light that could seriously impact the future of the planet. Many people erroneously believe that there is nothing they can do to help. There are simple investments that you can make to greatly reduce your environmental impact. Keep reading to learn how you can go green.

Many laptops will allow you to actually remove the battery when you are staying home. Just keep the laptop plugged directly into your surge protector. Laptops are designed to use significantly less power- this is only way to make the battery last longer. However, the battery will always drain power, even if you are not using it. By pulling it out you can prevent this.

Reverse the direction of your ceiling fan during the winter months so it will continue to reduce your bill. In the summer it creates air movement and pulls hot air up so that the room feels cooler in summer. Reversing this direction forces the hot air down from the ceiling, where it collects naturally. Since it requires less power than your heater, it will be comparatively cheaper than running your heat more often.

If you are looking to make a significant change in your energy usage, consider installing solar panels. As long as you take the time to do proper research and planning, the large expense will be covered through the energy savings. Once you have paid for the panels, you can enjoy 10 plus years of nearly free power. If the investment is too large, many companies are now offering lease options.

Your bottled water has a dirty little secret- it is probably just tap water with a fancy label. Get a reusable water bottle with a filter to have delicious fresh water anywhere you go. You can also get a faucet-attached filter or a pitcher for your refrigerator to make sure you have enough for the whole family.

Spend some time investing in local small businesses. Entrepreneurs in your town have many services and products that are the same, or even better, quality than the products on your warehouse store shelves. Not only that, because they have not been shipped all over the world they have a much smaller carbon footprint. You can also find chemical-free products that are simply not available commercially.

Make sure you are not wasting resources through lazy habits. Only run the dish and clothes washer when they are full. Turn out the lights when you are not in the room. While it seems simple, these concepts add up quickly. Once you get these down, you might want to go even further. Walk to the corner store on a nice day, or switch all your bills to online bill pay.

The changes you make today will pay for the upgrades you make in the future. That means you should get started as soon as possible. Using green tactics reduces waste and lays the groundwork for a better place to live for generations to come

Energy Crisis

You saw it in with gas prices in the summer of 2008; when non-renewable resources like oil, gas and coal become more and more scarce while the requirements from developing nations increased. This level of demand for energy will quickly overwhelm our supply. We take our uninterrupted supply of energy for grant, even though we know it is not unlimited. Now we have to take steps to deal with the pending energy crisis.

Demonstrated during the summer of 2008, we are all capable of making changes to conserve gas. So what steps are we taking to conserve power, and even water? What conservation steps are you taking? As global citizens, we are responsible for conserving resources when and where we can. It is not the job of the leaders, global or local, but of us, the consumers.

The gas crisis of 2008 was not the first. The U.S. has had three other major energy crises in recent history. The first was the 1973 oil crisis, then the 1979 energy crisis, and finally the 1990 oil price hike. There have also been several regional crises. Prices have increased dramatically over the last half decade, and still some people insist that the energy crisis is a myth.

Is it truly a myth? How will it peak and will we see the energy crisis in our lifetime? It is quite possible. Did you know that we have already used up 50% of the world's available oil? At the current rate, we will use up the other 50% in the next 32 years. I'll bet that our rate of consumption will continue to increase as use of alternatives and a conscience and consistent focus on conservation is in its infancy.

The Institute for the Analysis of Global Security wrote that China and India's use of oil will increase by more than 12% over the next two decades. The average growth for an industrial nation over the same period is 1%. With one-third of the globe's population in those two countries, that kind of increase will have an incredible impact. Our generation will most definitely see an energy crisis in the fairly near future.

How does the world's energy crisis affect you and your energy use at home? The first and most essential step is to recognize the importance of the way we use energy in our lives. We must quit taking our resources for granted. We must find ways to conserve gas, oil, and electricity. Making others aware of the crisis is important as well.

You can take small steps like switching off the car engine at stop lights, joining a carpool, riding a bike, and combining multiple errands into one trip and being thoughtful in the route you take. Decreasing the use of gas and oil in our daily activities is the way to delay or even avert a full crisis.

You can also start looking at alternative energy options. Solar and wind energy are both feasible alternatives that are extremely cost-effective. Make them your answer to the world's energy crisis

Making a Solar Panel at home

Building your own solar panel can be a fun project and it is very possible too. There are a number of good sites online detailing exactly how to go about building one, from e-books to other electronic resources. This article is intended to give a good overview of the principles involved when you build solar panels.

How Does Solar Power Panels Work?

To put it in simple terms, a solar panel uses photovoltaic process whereby light cases an electrical charge to flow in a material. If you are going to build homemade solar panels, there are 2 routes by which you are going to achieve a photovoltaic reaction. These are as follows:

First, the half-way house approach.

Here, building a solar panel at home involves purchasing the constituent parts from a suitable supplier. You can buy solar cells or premanufactured solar cells from solar equipment suppliers. Solar cells will convert just the actual sunlight, while the photovoltaic cell will convert light from more sources than the sun. With the components that you get from the supplier, you then assemble the remaining electronic parts required to produce your solar panel of choice. This will enable you to generate your own electricity with the solar power panels.

Second, you make your own solar cells project.

This is the approach you would want to do if you really want to explore how it all works and be able to say that you built a solar panel to your colleagues and friends. The difference with this method is that rather than buying the premade cells, you make them on your own. This home-grown approach relies on the superconducting/semiconducting photovoltaic properties of cuprous oxide, rather than going for the silicon-based solution. The finished cell will form a red oxidized powder. This oxidization process will also produce a black powder oxide which will be of no use. Copper oxide has a very dense polariton level so it does what it does, produce electricity. Polaritons are the results of photons going together with a conductive material, and the energy from this mixing is what produces the electricity.

So in order to build solar panels, you first need to produce your copper oxide, and this can be done through heating copper. Also, take all relevant safety precautions when doing this and reading up on exactly what you should be doing. The copper is heated for good amount of time so that the unwanted black colored copper will flake out, leaving only red portions of the copper. Then after cooling it, your solar cell will then consist of this oxidized panel in salty water with a fresh, non-oxidized copper panel of the same size. Tiny charges will be produced, but it's electricity and proof that you know how to build solar panels.

Go to for more info.

Importance of using Solar Panels

A great amount of reasons exist on why should you use solar panels at home with the money you save on electricity being the primary one. The use of solar panels will immensely lower your monthly bill. The more items you currently have that needs electricity the higher the bill becomes every month. With solar power there could be as much as an eighty five percent decrease to the monthly bill.
If you use electric for air conditioning, heat, microwaves, computer and a refrigerator just to name a few items, then you are paying more than is needed. Not only do they personally provide benefits for you and your family, but they also are better for reducing negative aspects to the planet.
Another benefit is there are governmental benefits for individuals that are opting for solar energy use. It is recommended that you investigate all of the incentives that come with installing panels to your home. There are many different tax write offs associated with purchase, installation and use of solar as your main source of energy. There is also a program that gives the option of selling unused energy back to the utility company.
If you live in an area that is prone to power outages, using solar panels will be extra crucial as there are no outages involved. There is a dependence on the sun as opposed to a dependence on foreign or local energy sources. If there are solar powered items in the home, they will continue to be in use during a county wide electrical outage.
The inside of the home is not the only place to take advantage of the use of solar power. A vast array of different items available such as the fountain pumps and lighting for the landscaping in the yard, flashlights, radios and bug zappers. These are all small items that can be used around the home to familiarize you with the process of using solar energy.
The solar lights that are used in a garden or along the walkway to the front entrance of the home look great as accessories to the landscaping. There are no wires to hook up or drag through the yard. They provide an excellent amount of lighting sources and are very inexpensive to purchase.
Installing the panels in the home is a fairly simple process and information regarding the best place to purchase them or instructions for making your own is easily found in home improvement stores or on the internet. These are only a few suggestions on why should you use solar panels at home, but the most important reason is the money you are saving while you are doing your part in protecting the environment.

Solar Panels

If you are searching a good alternative of the traditional energy generation methods then a solar panel could be that alternative. If you are searching a method to reduce your heavy monthly electricity bills then the use of the solar power panels to produce the electricity from the solar energy could be that method. With the power generated from the solar power panels, you can run anything from an automobile to a refrigerator. You must have seen these panels installed in the homes or offices but do you know what the components of these panels are. Have you ever thought of how the technology of these panels work?
Components of the Solar panels
The solar photovoltaic panel is the more technical term of the solar panels because the solar cells used in the panels are also known as the photovoltaic cells. Don't get confused by the word "photovoltaic". You can break this word into two to understand the meaning of it. The term photovoltaic consists of the two words photo and voltaic where photo means light and voltaic means electricity. This term is used to give the idea that the function of these panels is to convert the light into electricity. A semi-conductor is used in the photovoltaic cells. Mostly the silicon is used as a semi-conductor. Silicon is also used in the microprocessors of every computer. Silicon is the popular semi-conductor because it has the capability to conduct electricity.

Working of the Solar Photovoltaic panels
The technology used in the solar heat collection is of two types, the solar cells and the solar collectors. In all the small DIY panels that the consumers use in the home, the solar cells are used. The workings of the solar photovoltaic panels is very simple. The panel is exposed to the sunlight and as soon as the sunlight falls on the photovoltaic cells filled with the silicon, the solar energy in the sunlight is absorbed by the photovoltaic cells and then the current is generated inside the cell. The electricity generated in the panels can also be stored. To store the electricity generated, string together the photovoltaic cells and place contacts outside the panel to tap the electric current generated.
The important point to remember for the consumers is to make sure that the panel receives maximum sunlight because sunlight is the source from which power has to be generated. Keep this thing in mind during the installation also, and suggest a position to the installers in your house that receives maximum sunlight.

Disproving Relativity

Einstein's Theory of Relativity was published in the year 1905 as the most general explanation of nature and its phenomenon.

Einstein based his theory on two hypotheses which he referred to as fundamental hypotheses. The first hypothesis says that optical phenomena are independent of the conditions in which they occur and the second hypothesis is about constancy of velocity of light. Both the hypotheses are unverified, irrational and implausible as the most valid generalized explanation of nature and its phenomenon. Einstein has no where given reasons in support of his claims about the two fundamental hypotheses as being the most valid generalized explanations of nature.

In year 1919 Sir Arthur Eddington of Royal Astronomical Society experimentally demonstrated mathematically precise gravitational deflection of light - A fact predicted by Einstein's Theory of Relativity. On the basis of this single piece of evidence, the entire theory came to be accepted as the most valid generalized explanation of nature without further enquiry and investigation. Soon physicists elevated it the level of Gospel truth even though they found it too difficult to understand. All those who were in disagreement with Einstein were unable to prove their point of view.

This theory is a glaring example of as to how at times one can reach the right conclusions for wrong reasons.

Einstein and his followers limitlessly extrapolated the two fundamental hypotheses to Unified Field Theory and even beyond through a series of unverified, irrational and implausible turns and twists (assumptions and presumptions). For example Einstein beginning from his two fundamental hypotheses in his own style mathematically and logically deduced the equation E= (CHANGE IN MASSm)c2 but actually advocated the famous equation E=mc2 without offering any explanation as to how (CHANGE IN MASSm) can be equated with m, both being entirely different physical quantities as per his own derivation. Moreover Einstein did not consider for a moment that to prove the equation E=mc2, there is no need to rely upon his two fundamental hypotheses. It can be easily proved using Planck's Law and de Broglie's equation.

It is a historical fact that in the course of unlimited extrapolation of Einstein's Theory, several physical phenomena were predicted, identified and defined, at times right predictions for wrong reasons such as mass energy equivalence, gravitational mass of photons, black holes etc. But Einstein's Theory has led to a mythology of its own creation such as gravitational collapse of universe leading to formation of black holes which is quite implausible keeping properties of matter in view, string theory where strings are beyond human experience, space time continuum, Geodesic lines etc.

This unlimited extrapolation of two fundamental hypotheses is totally unwarranted because nature is hierarchically organized and the applicable rules vary from one hierarchical level to another. Before anything can be accepted as the most valid generalized explanation of nature, it needs to be shown that it is valid across the entire natural hierarchy. It has never been shown that the two fundamental hypotheses are valid across the natural hierarchy.

Again it has never been shown that Einstein's fundamental hypotheses are valid in non-linear domain. Moreover before accepting Einstein's Theory of Relativity as the most valid generalized explanation of nature, it needs to be shown that both the fundamental hypotheses can sufficiently explain all natural phenomena such as Consciousness, all origins, creations, evolutions, phenomena of life etc. Therefore Einstein's Theory of Relativity does not provide comprehensive explanation of natural phenomena.

The fact is that physicists have, historically, misguided themselves in believing in existence of mathematic-logically perfect explanation of nature, cosmos and phenomena of life. Physicists live with the pious hope that one day they would be able to comprehensively explain nature and its phenomena and on that day physics would emerge as the most fundamental of natural sciences. So the so called singularities surprise them and three dimensional space has been extended to 20 dimensions and they talk about time machine, supergravity and gravitons- entities beyond human perception, direct or indirect.

Finally, no doubt, mathematics and logic are the best tools in pursuit of understanding nature and its phenomena but they are limited in their applicability by nature of interacting entities and the context and this must always be kept in mind while using these tools.

Einstein vs Newton

The name Albert Einstein and Sir Isaac Newton are bywords of many people all through the walks of life. They are considered two of the greatest scientists of all time.
Albert Einstein (March 14, 1879- April 15, 1955) was a German physicist. His contributions to Physics started in 1905 that includes: the explanation of the Brownian motion in terms of Molecules, the explanation of photoelectric effect in terms of quantum in which he received a Nobel Prize and the Special Theory of Relativity that has become a major tool of Modern Physics. He also developed General Relativity Theory that was more accurate than of Newton's.

Albert Einstein's equation E=mc² (Energy = mass times the speed of light squared) paved the way for the creation of the first atomic bomb. Though he condemned the use of it, President Franklin D. Roosevelt approved the plan for an all out effort in atomic bomb. By the first week of August in 1945, the two bombs "The Little Boy" (Hiroshima Bomb) and "The Fat Man" (Nagasaki Bomb were already dropped, making a history. Einstein regretted what his invention has caused. He was considered one of the fathers of atomic bomb.

Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) was an English physicist, mathematician, alchemist and natural philosopher. He was considered to be the greatest genius the world has ever known. His works in optics, gravitation and motion, corpuscular theory of light represents the greatest achievement of the time.

In his written study entitled Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica that was published in 1687, he described the three laws of motion and the universal gravitation. The discovery of Johannes Kepler of the three fundamental laws of planetary motion, which described the Copernican Theory, was only understood when Isaac Newton discovered the Laws of Gravitation and motion. He also described the principles of conservation of momentum and angular momentum.

Newton invented the reflecting telescope and developed a theory of color based on his observation that a prism decomposes with light into a visible spectrum. He formulated a law of cooling and studied speed of sound. This great scientist also demonstrated the Generalized Binomial Theorem, which developed the "Newton Method". He also shared credits in the development of the calculus with Gottfried von Leibniz.

Sir Isaac Newton also devised a numerical equation to verify his ideas about gravity. He called it inverse square law of attraction, which states that the force of gravity is related to the inverse square of the distance between the two objects

The year 1666 was the peak of Newton's achievements. He has this crucial experiment that became his most famous experiment, the experimentum crucis. This demonstrated the theory of the composition of light. This explains that a selected color leaving the first prism could not be separated by the second prism. He then had a conclusion made that white light is a Heterogeneous mixture of differently refrangible rays and that colors of the spectrum cannot individually be modified by themselves, but are original and connate properties. Newton has failed in his dynamics experiments in three periods of time; first during plague in 1664-1666, the investigations of 1679-1680, and the period 1684-1687. His masterpieces were written in three different books. He also pursued some other researches in alchemy and science. However, his nonscientific writings were being neglect by some historians.

Before his death Newton had refused the sacrament. It was believed that the reason of this gesture was because he was a Unitarian

Our Amazing Digestive System

Your body knows when it needs food, and it lets you know when it needs food as well! Your brain and hormones send signals to your mind in the sensation of hunger. Stomach growling, empty feeling in the stomach - they both contribute to the desire to eat, then as you begin to eat your digestion starts.

Your taste buds are what help you determine what is sweet, salty, savoury, bitter or sour. The rest of your senses like smell can determine how much you really like the food. It has been proven that the foods aroma is thousands of times more sensitive than the sense of taste and can determine whether you like the food or not.

I have a personal example of this. The other day I was drinking coffee that tasted amazing! It was flavoured with caramel and other flavours, but the lid on the coffee smelled like burnt plastic and every time I went to take a drink I would get disgusted because of that smell. It actually overrode my enjoyment in the taste of the coffee.

In any case your digestive system takes over from there. Here`s a list of the mechanics involved in your digestive system and a summary of what takes place.

Salivary Glands - They produce digestive enzymes for fat and starch.

Mouth - It chews up your food and mixes it with the saliva

Esophagus - Sends the chewed up food to your stomach.

Stomach - Adds acid, enzymes, and fluid to the food. This is where your food becomes a liquid mass instead of the recognizable chunks you put in.

Liver - Is what produces bile which helps with digestion of fats.

Gallbladder - Stores the bile until you need it.

Pancreas - Produces enzymes to digest the energy producing nutrients. It also releases bicarbonate to neutralize the stomach acid that enters into the small intestine.

Bile Duct - Moves the bile to the small intestine.

Pancreatic Duct - Moves pancreatic juice into the small intestine.

Small intestine - Secretes the enzymes to digest carbs, fat, and protein. Also absorbs nutrients into the blood and lymph.

Large Intestine (colon) - Absorbs water and minerals. It also passes the waste including fiber, bacteria, and any unabsorbed nutrients to the rectum.

Rectum - Holds the waste until you are ready to eliminate.

Anus- Holds the rectum closed, and opens to eliminate.

As you can see there is much more to the digestive system then just eating and eliminating. It`s extremely important to keep your digestive system working properly.

Some Tips To Help Keep Your Digestive System Working Well

  • Eat high fiber foods - Fiber attracts water which helps you pass softer stools to move through your colon easier.
  • Don`t overeat - It can cause your digestive system to work too hard, and can cause heartburn from the acid juice backing up into your esophagus - which can burn the esophagus.
  • Avoid foods that irritate you - They irritate you for a reason! Your body is telling you something. If you get heartburn or pains from a food then avoid it.
  • Eat slowly - You can choke if you eat too fast, and chewing your food until it is crushed and moistened helps the digestive system do its job easier.
  • Don`t drink while eating - If you drink while you are eating you can dilute your stomach acids and digestive enzymes which are needed to breakdown your food! It`s best to drink an hour after or before your meal instead.
  • Being healthy means taking your body into consideration, not just listening to what people tell you is good or bad for you.
  • Want to lose weight? Check out Kari's review of the 5 factor diet [], a diet that she believes is about being healthy, not just losing weight

Effects of Global Warming

There are many predicted effects for the environment and for human life due to global warming. The main effect centres around an increase in the global average temperature. It's been confirmed by at least 20 scientific societies and academies of science, as well as all the national academies of science of the G8 states, that the Earth's global average air temperature near its surface rose by 0.56-0.92 C (0.98-1.62 F) degrees during the last 100 years. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concludes that this increase is very likely due to the "observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations, which leads to the warming of the surface and lower atmosphere by increasing the greenhouse effect."

For humans, these changes in climate are particularly dangerous to those who live near the ocean shore and who already suffer from drought, flooding, and poverty.

The IPCC concludes from models that global temperatures will likely rise by 1.1 to 6.4 C (2.0 to 11.5 F) degrees between 1990 and 2100, with the range of temperatures due to the use of differing scenarios of future greenhouse gas emissions and varying degrees of climate sensitivity.

Other effects of global warming include a rising sea level and changes in the amount and pattern of precipitation. In addition, there may be more frequent and intense weather events, such as more intense hurricanes, tornados, tsunamis, thunderstorms, blizzards, etc., though it is difficult to connect specific events to global warming.

Global warming is also causing changes in agricultural yields, glacier retreat, reduced summer stream flows, species extinctions, and increases in the ranges of disease vectors. The increased volumes of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases released by the burning of fossil fuels, land clearing, agriculture, and other human activities are the major reasons why global warming has been occurring and increasing over the last 50 years.

Effects of global warming are expected to cause more changes as it becomes more pronounced; examples include the following projected climate changes (from Wikipedia):

- "A significant slowing of the ocean circulation that transports warm water to the North Atlantic; - Large reductions in the Greenland and West Antarctic Ice Sheets; - Accelerated global warming due to carbon cycle feedbacks in the terrestrial biosphere, and - Releases of terrestrial carbon from permafrost regions and methane from hydrates in coastal sediments."

It is uncertain whether for sure these events will occur or to what severity they will occur if they do, but most believe that the chances of at least one of the above events occurring are likely to increase the longer and more severe climate change becomes.

Some scientific members argue whether there will be positive effects from global warming, but most agree that any positive effects will be greatly outnumbered by the number of negative effects.

Projected climate changes due to global warming have the potential to greatly and irreversibly change our climate that will have lasting impacts on both the continental and global scales. One effect will be increased precipitation, due to the increasing temperature.

As Earth's temperature continues to rise, a very recent report from the IPCC shows that there will be an increasing impact to natural systems and people, especially those who live in Earth's poorer nations. In 2002, Colorado, Arizona, and Oregon endured their worst wildfire season ever. Also in 2002, drought created severe dust storms that caused hundreds of millions of dollars of damage in Texas, Montana, and North Dakota. Since the early 1950s, snow accumulation has decreased by 60%, which has led to some areas of the Cascade Range in Oregon and Washington to have shorter winter seasons.

As you can see, effects of global warming are very negative on our planet already, from increased air temperatures to rises in the sea level to more severe storms. Currently, it is a challenge to predict how many effects global warming will have and how strong those effects will be, but most of the scientific community is predicting that global warming will have more negative effects on our planet and way of life the longer and more severe climate change becomes.

The Green House Effect

The green-house effect is the most important cause behind global warming. In fact global warming is known as the greenhouse effect. This phenomenon leads to an increase in the Earth temperature due to certain gases like CO2, nitrous oxide, and methane. These gases trap the energy from the sun and without them the heat would go back into space and Earth would be one massive iceberg. Since these gases warm the Earth, they are known as greenhouse gases.

In the last couple of decades, people have started using glass houses to grow plants in winter and these are called greenhouses. Typically, these houses will trap the heat from the sun. The glasses in the greenhouse let the light through and at the same time prevent the heat from escaping.

As a result, the greenhouse heats up to keep the plants alive in the winter. Similarly, the greenhouse gases in the Earths atmosphere work like the glass and prevent the heat from escaping. The sunlight enters piercing through the cloud of greenhouse gases and when it reaches the Earths surface, it is absorbed by land, water, and air.

After absorption the same energy is sent back into the atmosphere. Some of it remains trapped in the atmosphere due to the greenhouse gases and this energy makes the Earth warmer. Since there has been an increase in CO2 emissions in the last couple of decades, more and more heat is being absorbed in the atmosphere. This is increasing the temperature of the Earth gradually and causing global warming

The outcomes of global warming cannot be ignored.

Why Mathematics is so important?

All children can succeed in mathematics. How do I know this? My empirical experience approaching thirty years tells me this is so. My intuition tells me this is so. You just need to know what to give your children, and more importantly, what not to give them.

Children are natural problem solvers. If you leave them alone, they will figure out the most amazing things. If you nurture them properly and give them the space to grow, they will become natural mathematicians. The trick is to let them believe---at least initially---that learning and education are fun and will lead them to have more fun in life. How simple that sounds! Yet this premise is that simple.

Unfortunately most parents get bogged down in their own problems and do not subscribe to this philosophy. Such parents become frustrated when their child shows a lack of interest in school work and school related tasks. These problems spiral and eventually become overwhelming. Rather than address the problem and correct the negative programming that has been instilled on the child, parents resort to criticism and reprimand.

No child can ever succeed in mathematics with criticism. The one thing that this world has way too much of is that one word---criticism. If you do not believe this statement, try this experiment for one week: refrain from all criticism. Do not criticize your coworkers, your friends, your relatives, yourself. Do not criticize the government, the world, the planet. Watch if your life does not somehow take on a whole new dimension of vibrancy, peace, and enthusiasm.

Pass this enthusiasm onto your child. Tell your son or daughter how creative he or she is. Instill in your children that they are leaders, capable of solving any problem that presents itself. Mathematics is a subject which is self-propelled by high self-esteem. Children who have high self-worth, high self-esteem tend to be better problem solvers. Why this is so is self-evident: a child who believes in himself will approach tasks and problems with a gusto that says he can lick the task. Consequently, this child approaches the problem with the attitude that he will win and the problem will lose. End result: more success in whatever task at hand.

In conclusion, every child can succeed in mathematics. Give your children a never-say-quit attitude. Give them encouragement. Give them love. Do not give them criticism. These three former give, this latter withhold. This is a secret for success in mathematics, in school, and indeed life. Use it.

Play Blackjack.

Earlier the game was called 'twenty one' and was initially perceived as slightly difficult to understand and execute. Among the first references to the game are found in a book by the Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes, the author of the famous book, 'Don Quixote'. The card game of blackjack owes its name to a 'natural hand winner' session when a player was dealt a Jack and an Ace of Spades at the first go. It so happened, that he was immediately declared a winner and earned a bonus.

As mentioned above, blackjack was initially considered difficult due to its seemingly complex counting strategies. This changed over a period of time when papers were released explaining how to simulate the situation mathematically. In a paper published in 1956, Roger Baldwin outlined the methods to reduce house edge. Since his theory was built around probability and statistics, it did not find too many takers, especially outside the mathematical community.

Then in 1962, Dr. Edward Thorp refined the concept, using an IBM 704 computers, and came out with what could be considered as some of the first card counting techniques. Additionally, he penned a book by the name "Beat the Dealer," which dealt in-depth with ways to reduce house advantage, and listed a number of card counting techniques therein. Needless to say, this increased the population of blackjack among players, who used the methods outlined in the book to deal with house advantage. In addition, this forewarned the casinos to be prepared for an unprecedented increase in the number of players, resulting in an astonishing upswing in their earnings as well.

Let us take a brief look at the card game of blackjack. Players start off by making a wager. The dealer then deals two cards face up to the players. The dealer receives one card face up, and the other face down. Players pick up more cards with the hope to get the closest or equal to 21. If they overshoot 21, they lose the bet. Getting a 21 is called the "Blackjack."

This entitles the winner to receive one and half times his stake. However, if the house also coincidentally gets a Blackjack, it becomes a tie, and the bet is returned to the player. Players with higher cards than the house, earn an amount equal to their initial bets. Others lose their bets.

In 1910, the state of Nevada in the United States of America prohibited gambling, thus relegating gamblers to the status of criminals. It stayed that way for many years until 1931, when it was revoked, owing to huge public outcry against the government. This brought back casinos into the mainstream, and blackjack came back with a bang. Players again started picking up on the game, due to its challenging calculations and strategies. It soon turned out to be a major favorite among the gambling fraternity, and the game went beyond boundaries across the whole world.

Development in technology and the spread of the Internet, in particular, has today brought all games, including blackjack into peoples' homes. Hundreds of websites have set up shops online to cater to the swelling horde of blackjack enthusiasts. Many of these are very authentic and secure, making gambling online a pleasurable experience.

The card game of blackjack itself is a very exciting game, and the websites, using exceptional gaming software, loaded with amazing quality of graphics and with superior video and audio, come up with remarkably interesting themes that mimic the environment in a real casino. Apart from this, the educational resources provided by such sites are immense, and players can also get the opportunity use chat rooms to interact with more experienced players around the world, and benefit from their invaluable tips and inputs. This way, their learning curve will be steep, and they will soon be on their way to a successful stint at professional gambling online, experiencing the frustrations, the excitement and finally, the sweet joy of winning.

About Alchohol

Alcohol is a very ancient drink that has been consumed for thousands of years by almost all civilizations. Alcoholic beverages are an important part of many social events. A lot of us resort to a glass of wine at home after a hard day. So how do you know when an innocent drink turns into a dangerous addiction? Can alcohol actually be good for you? What is a safe dose of alcohol? We set out on a quest to find out the answers to all these questions and more.

So can alcohol actually be used as a medicine? The answer is only in rare cases. If we are dealing with a heart attack, liver or kidney colic and there are no medications available, then we can use alcohol. One tablespoon of vodka or cognac will help eliminate the vessel and muscular spasms thus improving the patient's condition until the ambulance arrives. However the relaxation effect caused by alcohol is very short and is followed by the phase of prolonged vessel and muscular spasms.

What effects do alcoholic beverages have on blood pressure? They raise it. This is exactly the reason why alcohol actually helps those who have hypotonia, one or two tablespoons of cognac can resuscitate a person with low blood pressure. However, the World Health Organization does not recommend for doctors to advise their patients to take any alcoholic beverages as their medicine. Longstanding research shows that the cause of 20% of all cases of hypertension is alcohol, especially beer and vodka. Thus, if a man consumes more than 5 oz of wine or 2 oz of vodka a day, the risk of developing hypertension increases to 40%; in the same case for women the risk increases to 90%! So it is much safer to increase blood pressure not with alcohol but with coffee, tea, dark chocolate, or ginseng tincture.

It's a known fact that natural dry wines are beneficial for us. What is this effect due to? The skin and seeds of red type of grape contain a substance that has a huge antioxidant effect. When we eat that type of grapes or drink wine made out of it, this substance prevents the development of cardio-vascular and oncological diseases, it slows down the age changes in the brain and in the motor function thus extending the life span and delaying the body's aging. Besides that, alcoholic beverages improve digestion and prevent building up of cholesterol on the vascular walls. But all of this is true only when alcohol is consumed in moderate amounts. Consumption of alcohol in large amounts leads to heart pathologies and hypertension. So it's much safer to lower cholesterol with the help of physical activities and rational diet, which are just as effective as alcohol.

How is it that the French eat a lot of fatty foods, drink beer and at the same time live long lives and suffer from cardio-vascular diseases 40% less than the Americans? The secret of the "French paradox" is not only in consuming wine regularly, but also in their lifestyle and peculiarities of their diet. Besides wine and cheese the French consume a large amount of vegetables, fruit, verdure, olive oil and seafood. This diet supplies the body with lipoproteins of high density, unsaturated fats, vitamins and microelements, which cause a powerful antioxidant effect, protecting the body's cells from damages by free radicals. Furthermore, the residents of South France actively consume seaweed, which contains substances that improve the biological properties of blood (decrease the formation of clots and stimulate disintegration of fats).

What amount of alcohol is considered a safe dose? In France, Italy, and Hungary this number would traditionally be higher than that in Sweden or Norway, for example. But talking about the common dose, the World Health Organization recommends for men to consume not more than 30 ml of pure alcohol, which is about 1.5 bottles of beer or 2 shots of vodka a day, and for women - 20 ml of pure alcohol per day, which is 1 bottle of beer or 1 shot of vodka. The doctors also recommend refraining from drinking alcoholic beverages at least two days a week.

So why is the safe dose for women lower than the one for men? This is explained by the fact that women have less water in their body than men do. Besides, the element responsible for the disintegration of alcohol located in the stomach is less active in women. Therefore the processing of alcoholic beverages is slower in female bodies making the ladies more receptive to alcohol.

Why is it that some people get a headache after a glass of red wine, but feel fine after drinking white wine? This reaction could be caused by individual intolerance of sulfur dioxide - the substance that is added to red dry wines for longer storage. This preservative can cause immediate redness of the face and strong migraines. This does not happen when consuming white wines because there is no sulfur dioxide added to them according to their preparation technology.

How safe are the low-alcohol sparkling drinks so popular among the younger people? Easy math allows us to see that this category of drinks is not so harmless. Most of them contain 8% alcohol. If you multiply this number by 0.33, which is the contents of one bottle, then we get about 27 ml of pure alcohol. For women it is already over their daily limit, and usually few stop at just one bottle a day. Besides these drinks usually contain carbon dioxide, which contributes to faster absorption of alcohol into blood due to which intoxication happens almost after the first sip.

What are the consequences of immoderate consumption of beer? Beer, just as any other alcoholic beverage, first of all affects the liver, causing toxic hepatitis and alcohol cirrhosis. Namely these two diseases have the leading positions in beer countries such as Germany, where beer is consumed often and in big amounts, up to 3 liters per night.

Former smokers complain that after having a drink they get the desire to smoke again. Why does it happen? Usually this happens to those who managed to say no to the harmful habit but haven't coped with the psychological smoking addiction. Once the former smoker goes to the party where a lot of people smoke, he or she can experience what a former drug addict would feel if he appeared in a surrounding where they used to do drugs. Just one glance at the familiar surroundings is enough to be overtaken with the associative habit. Under the influence of alcohol, the memory draws the pictures of the past that are so vivid that the former smoker can actually feel the taste and smell of tobacco. Besides being in the state of euphoria (after having a couple of drinks) a person already can not critically assess his or her actions and breaks their own promises without thinking twice. Typically we smoke more cigarettes than usual in this condition. As a result the toxic effect of alcohol is intensified by several times, hence a more severe hangover.

What medicines could be combined with alcohol? Alcohol is not compatible with any medications, especially cardio-stimulants, tranquilizers, antidepressants, and beta-blockers. Losing conciseness is the least of the potential consequences. Sometimes alcohol can intensify the effects of the medications by so much that it can lead to coma or even sudden death. Alcoholic beverages are also not compatible with diuretic medications. Combined with wine or beer diuretics remove such a big amount of microelements out of your body that it can lead to heart malfunctions. Even the commonplace aspirin should not be chased with alcoholic drinks - such experiments can lead to stomach ulcer. A vast amount of complications can be caused by combining alcohol with antibiotics. Not all medications enter our body in active form. A lot of them start acting only after they pass the stage of disintegration in the liver. Alcohol requires disintegration too, and thus once both medications and alcohol enter our body at the same time, both of these substances start to compete. As a result the active ingredient of the medication gets to our body under-oxidized, which most often leads to allergic reactions.

Why is it that some people become placid and talkative after having a drink, and others become withdrawn and aggressive? In spite of the person's character, age and mood, the alcohol slows down the function of the nervous system. Two minutes after having a drink, the alcohol reaches the frontal lobe of the brain leading to the disruption of the most of neuro-chemical bonds. You become absent-minded, the thoughts become chaotic, and the mood becomes elevated and cheerful. Although this state of euphoria is short-term, soon the phase of inhibition comes, during which the intoxicated person looses restraint and common sense and their conversations and actions become inappropriate. Usually alcohol affects healthy people as an emotional equalizer: a closed-off person brightens up after a glass of wine, a talkative one quiets down, an aggressive one calms down. Although sometimes unexpected reactions happen, which are usually predetermined by peculiarities of the person's nervous system. One fact remains though, if after having a drink you become aggressive, you should stay away from drinking.

A lot of people consider alcohol the best cure of stress, is that true? Alcohol is the most simple and accessible tranquilizer. However it does not relieve stress, otherwise everyone would be drinking their problems away. Fortunately, this does not happen since for most people alcohol is just a mediator, something of a relaxing element, which allows them to talk frankly, to pour their heart out to the closest friend, neighbor, fellow traveler. However the doctors consider jogging just as effective due to the increased production of energy in our body when under stress. That is why when we start stressing out we can not stay in one place: we pace the room, pull at our hair, talk emotionally. Therefore it would be quite logical to get rid of the excess energy at the gym rather than at the bar.

Are there any rules one should follow when drinking? The first rule is never drink on an empty stomach. If you don't eat anything prior, alcohol is absorbed freely by the stomach and quickly gets into blood causing immediate and very strong intoxication. This is why dietitians recommend eating something greasy beforehand. The second rule is to start the party up with aperitif, a small drink before you eat to stimulate the appetite. If you have a little bit of wine, vodka or martini first, not only will you stimulate the appetite, but you will also make the fermentative system work more actively. The third rule is if you have to change a drink make sure to drink higher proof drinks each time. Processing high-proof drinks requires a lot of the ferment responsible for breaking up alcohol hence if you chase cognac with champagne you will cause the deficit of this ferment. Because of that, the low-proof drink gets into our body unbroken without obstruction causing strong intoxication.

What kind of food should you have with strong drinks? Dry wines should be followed by fruit, cheese, salads, non-greasy types of meat, and fish. Drinks with 80 proof and higher go best with greasier and heavier foods - pork, lamb, red caviar, potatoes, salads with high-calories sauces. This will help slow down the absorption of alcohol and improve the digestion of food since alcohol helps break up fats. It is desirable to have fresh lemons available during a long get-together. The acid contained by them is an excellent decomposer of alcohol therefore you can chase your drinks with cut up pieces of this sour fruit or have a glass of water mixed with lemon juice. You might want to get rid of sparkling sweet drinks since sugar and carbon dioxide contained by them increase the absorption speed of alcohol. This is the same reason why you should not chase sparkling wines with chocolate.

What is alcohol poisoning? What are its symptoms and what precautions should be taken to save the person who got alcohol poisoning? Alcohol poisoning happens after consumption of more than 500 ml of vodka. Most people's body natural reaction to such an amount of toxic substances is vomiting, but more than 30% of alcohol drinkers are missing this reflex, therefore if the body is exposed to a large amount of ethanol, it undergoes the strongest alcohol intoxication: alcohol paralyzes the nervous system which leads to comatose condition and if left unattended can lead to death in several hours. This is why if you find someone unconscious with a distinct alcohol smell, pale, perspirating, having hurried breathing, not reacting to any outside stimuli, having weak pulse and uneven heartbeat, call the ambulance immediately.

Now that you know all these facts about alcohol, go out and have fun, but be responsible and safe!

Dreams make sense

What are dreams all about? If you can answer that then you know more about dreams than the dream researchers themselves. Many scientists and individuals have tried to explain dreams, from metaphorical interpretations to them being nothing more than 'tying up the day's events'. Each of these 'explanations' is just a subjective interpretation with no concrete evidence. With the advance of brain imaging technologies, we are getting close to understanding more about the obscure reality of our subconscious. However, as little as we do know, we still know enough to bring you these wild facts...

Six years strong

Now, having only one dream that lasts six years would be scarier than exploring Cobbs subconscious in Inception. Nonetheless, in the average human lifetime, you would have spent a total of six years trapped in the world of your dreams. That's actual dream time too, not sleep time.

Roman retrieval

During the Roman Era, people who had particularly intense or significant dreams were allowed to submit their dreams to the Senate, where they would then be analysed and an interpretation would be provided.

Faded memories

Dreams, no matter how intense they are, quickly fade out of our conscious minds after waking. After just five minutes, half of what happened in our dreams is forgotten. Turn that five minutes to ten minutes, and over 90% is forgotten. We still don't fully understand why it is so hard to remember our dreams.

Brainy sleeper

You may think that sleep and dreams are the time for your brain to unwind and 'shut-down' from your conscious day. The surprising truth is actually the opposite. Brain wave analysis has shown greater brain wave activity when we are dreaming than when we are awake.

Amazing human being

The human body is just about as amazing as you can get considering all the functions it performs for each and every one of us, each and every day. Here are some amazing facts about the human body that you may not of known.

Of course we all know how important our heart is right? Did you know the heart has enough pressure to actually squirt blood 30 feet away. Maybe that is why we can feel our heart beating so easily.

Surprisingly the heart of a woman beats faster than that of a man, and is due in part to a woman being physically smaller than a man, and as a result less blood is needed to pump throughout the body.

So what would be the benefit of right-handed people over the left-handed people? Well amazingly on average right-handed people live nine years longer than left-handed people do. Considering that most machines and tools we use on a daily basis are actually designed for right-handed people, and so making the machines a bit more dangerous for left-handed people, and as a result thousands of accidents even deaths each year.

Would it surprise you to know that our stomach produces acid. Furthermore our stomach acid is so strong that it can actually dissolve a razor blade. Not so surprising is how our stomach lining is replaced every three to four days with new stomach lining, and each time it is dissolved it is due to strong digestive acids. So with these acids not only does it do its job with the food we eat throughout the day, but this same acid that our stomach produces is so strong that it can eat through many types of metals. That is strong! Amazing strength for our stomach.

Also in consideration for what is strong which of course are the muscles in our bodies, but probably not the muscles you would expect. Surprisingly the strongest muscle in the human body is the tongue. Our tongue works the whole day when we eat, swallow, and even talk, it's almost nonstop working. I recommend you not to lift weights with your tongue though.

Amazingly the body of an adult every day produces 300 billion new cells. Our bodies simply require energy to keep our organs working and running, and continuously repairing and building new cells.

What about a cold room? Sometimes the cold can be bad as in the cold room you sleep in. You actually have a better chance of having a bad dream if you sleep in a cold room. Scientists are not sure why, but if you do not like having nightmares then be careful how cold you have the room when you sleep.

Sexual relations happen about 120 million times a day about 4% of the population on earth. As a result birth rates increase in various places of the world. Should the birth rate be of any surprise?

Our eyes allow us to see the world around us, but our eyes from the day we are born always remain the same size, but what never stops to grow are our ears and nose they both continue to grow our whole life.

Our ears also produce more ear wax when we are afraid than when we are not. Studies have shown that the sticky substance that our ears produce is caused partly by fear, but the reason however is not clear

Our middle finger nail is the fastest growing nail between our hands and our feet, and the fastest growing nail of all is on the dominant hand, and still that fastest growing nail is on the middle finger of the dominant hand.

How many miles of blood vessels are there in the human body? There is estimated to be 60,000 miles of blood vessels in the whole human body. In comparison around the earth the distance is 25,000 miles.

Which one can humans do longer without... food or sleep? Well lets just say experiencing psychological changes, and personality changes that can become radical can happen only after a few nights without sleep. A person can survive without food for one or two months, so sleep is much more important for survival of the human body than food is.

We know our brain tells us when we feel pain, but can our brain actually feel pain itself? Your brain lets you know when you cut yourself, or if you burn yourself, but our brain itself is unable to feel the actual pain since it does not have any pain receptors.

Improve your Memory

Before you can improve your memory the first step is to learn how it works. For memory there is a process your brain goes through where it first acquires or registers incoming information, consolidates and sorts that information and at a later time you have that ability to recall the information that has been acquired and stored.

This is a process of the brain and the nervous system working together, and it contains two kinds of information: knowledge and procedures.

One of the simplest ways to improve your memory is by regularly using it! You can do this is by trying to think differently or remember things you have not thought of in a long time. Using little games like recalling every animal you can think of beginning with a certain letter, or naming every country you have visited (useful if you are well travelled!). This is called flexing your memory and it really makes it more nimble. Just like a muscle, the more you exercise it the bigger it becomes!

Something else that has been proven to enhance your memory is learning a new language. This exercises your brain by exposing it to new, unfamiliar words and sounds that your brain will be forced to absorb and retain. The sheer volume of information required in learning a new language will certainly help your brain exercises and improve your memory... not to mention how it will improve your communication skills.

New studies also suggest that taking short naps during the day improves memory. At the onset of sleep a period of processing begins which boosts your memory.

Don't forget, physical exercise will also make your memory better (especially as you get older) as this aides the blood flow to the whole body (including the brain).

These are just a few simple ways that you can improve your memory starting from right now.

Myths About How the Brain Works

When it actually comes to how the brain works there are not many people that can really answer that. Here are many myths as to how it works but it still remains a mystery to many of us. Why is it that a lot of people are very brainy with very high IQ levels, yet many people are also not very bright and struggle to complete even the simplest of tasks when asked to do so? Some people have compared the brain to one of the muscles in the body. The saying is that if you work and train hard then your muscles will strengthen and grow. Likewise the more you make your brain work the better it will inevitably function.

So a lot of studying is a very good way to make the brain develop and function properly. What has been noticed is that unlike your muscles that can weaken as we grow older, the brain can still function very well and can still acquire information as well as before.

Another good way to get your brain stimulated is to take up reading. Reading can often put new and unexpected twists in the path of the brain. When you are reading there are many variants that can happen and your brain has to understand them all. A book is made up of many different types of characters and symbols that the brain has to decipher in order for you to understand it. Relating the events in a book to the real world is another way in which the brain works.

So a good way to increase your IQ is to start reading. You must keep your brain active if you want it to develop. Keeping the brain idle will just make it struggle to cope with anything. The harder that you work your brain the more it will improve and the more rapidly it will acquire the right information.

How The Brain Works

Our brain is a collection of separate parts that must learn to work together. To help explain this, neuro-physiologist, Dr. Paul Maclean, who headed the federal government laboratory of brain evolution, has developed the concept of an evolutionary "triune" brain structure in his revolutionary book, "The Triune Brain in Evolution."

At the top of the spine we have a brain stem. At one time in evolution of vertebrates this was all the brain the organism had. It is often called the reptilian brain. Most of our automatic and instinctual responses (fight or flee, etc.) come from the reptilian brain.

Also found on the back side of the brain stem is the cerebellum, a very old part of the brain from an evolutionary point of view, that is responsible for the subconscious coordination of all muscle movements.

On top of the brain stem, deep within the cerebral cortex, is found the next step in evolution, the primitive mammalian brain, often identified as the limbic lobes. The mammalian brain is found in all mammals including the most primitive mammal. This is the seat of our emotional responses.

As mammals became more highly evolved, they developed a cerebral cortex surrounding the mammalian brain. This is where our logical thinking is, voluntary muscle control, centers for vision and other senses.

When you look at a frontal view of the brain, it looks like a giant walnut. The brain has a deep notch running from front to back. It looks like half a shelled walnut. Thus in the cerebral cortex we have what are called left and right brain hemispheres.

The neurons running between the body and the brain cross over in the medulla (a part of the brain stem) so the left hemisphere is associated with the right side of the body and the right hemisphere with the left. Between the two hemispheres we have a narrow communication bridge that we call a corpus callosum.

We need to communicate between these two halves for many activities. The left hemisphere we can call the linear logic language hemisphere. The right hemisphere is the visual and integrating hemisphere. The left-hemisphere is reductionist and sees our world as little bits and pieces, and the right hemisphere sees the big picture. Western culture is primarily left-brained, and eastern culture is primarily right brained

Electrical Resistivity Vs Coefficient of Temperature

If the temperature begins to change, the value of resistance for all kinds of resistors also exhibits an adjustment. On the basis that the R-value returns to normal when the temperature is normal, this informative article aims at only on the temporary adjustments that occur if temperature changes. Temperature has two consequences on the level of resistance. The actual size of the resistive material alters as a result and raises the cross-sectional area as well as the length. The other effect is the alter in the resistivity value of the material and for all the materials which we implement for making resistors, the resistivity change is so much more than the changes as a result of change in the proportions that we may concentrate on this alteration alone.

The property of materials that is used to look at the effect of temperature changes is known as the coefficient of temperature, and strictly speaking the coefficient that we make use of is the temperature coefficient of resistance or TCR. The definition is the fractional difference in amount of resistance per degree Celsius. A positive result is observed with the TCR when the temperature increase leads to the resistance increase and a negative result is affected by the TCR when the temperature lowers. While in most cases a low temperature coefficient is needed to keep comparatively persistent values of resistance. Many resistors yet are specifically designed to guarantee a larger resistor temperature coefficient. These types of resistors are known as thermistors and could be useful for temperature measuring or over-current protection. Metal oxide semiconductors are normally used for these thermistors. However there are also silicon based thermistors, these show a more linear response.

Generally, good conductors for instance metals always have a positive temperature coefficient (P T C), but semiconductor materials usually have a negative coefficient, and carbon resistors might have a NTC as well. Furthermore there are thermistors which have a very high TCR (either positive or negative). To show temperature coefficients in a way which are easily accessible or memorable, it is common to quote temperature coefficients in parts as per million per degree. For example, we write the value as 250 ppm/°C rather than 0.00025/°C when we talk about the resistor with regards to being temperature coefficient of the resistor, because this is a form that is more compact and can be remembered effortlessly when making use of statistics.

Much more information on the temperature coefficient of resistors can be found at: